ReIntroducing Indus Valley | HARAPPA | SAkAFAT FOREVER


The word “Early Civilizations” leaves us imagining about Mesopotamia and Egypt their mummies, golden tombs and pyramids. 1920 came up with a massive discovery of “early civilizations” in South Asia. Under mounds of dirt and layers of land, a 4,600-year-old city was discovered in the Indus River Plains. This Civilization had existed at the same time as Mesopotamian and Egyptian states. Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, and Mehrgarh are the ancient cities that are based in Pakistan, the discovery of these cities have revealed significant clues to the mystery. Harrapa was such a splendid discovery that the IVC ( Indus Valley Civilization) is also known as Harappan Civilization. Sakafat is going to cover all the Ancient Pakistani civilizations in the next few blogs, and this blog is going to reintroduce you to the splendid Civilization of Harrapa. It might give you the reason to provide it with a visit from Sakafat’s perspective.


R. D Banerji in 1992 discovered Mohenjo-Daro, and major exhumations took place at the north right after two years in the result of which Harrapa city was found. It is said that Sir Alexander Cunningham, who first excavated the place, wrote about the seals before 50 years of Indus Valley Concept.

 What makes ‘INDUS VALLEY’ interesting?

The thing that makes the IVC stand out is its practical approach to common. The city is noticed to have supported the ordinary, profane, living people. They must be people with strong beliefs. They generated a system of social divisions and also believed that circulating the resources is more critical than burring underground. Very interestingly! The people of IVC appears to be very tranquil. A very few weapons were found, and it seems like there had been no Army. Also, the Indus Valley didn’t bury the riches in golden tombs, nor did they built massive monuments, no evidence of violence and bloody wars has been discovered. 


 Indus Valley that is also known as Harrapan Civilization is the greatest of the four ancient civilizations discovered yet. It is famous for its developed drainage system, well-designed cities, and advanced engineering, which wouldn’t be improved for numerous centuries. This ancient phenomenon lasted for almost 1600 years, no one knows the reason for its destruction, but according to the archeological analysis, it collapsed somewhere in 16th century BC.


Harappa and Indus Valley cities had an architectonic level that was incomparable to the ancient world. These valleys had settlements for the protection from seasonal floods and contaminated water. Street network of the cities was seen laid out in straight lines intersecting each other at perfect angles. Even the buildings had their outer walls connected to form barriers for dust and noise, the thin passages through this outer wall led to numerous houses to a shared yard that showed a neighborhood compound. Also, the construction material of the valley buildings was consistent in size.


The Indus Valley is known to have the world’s first sanitization systems. Every house of the city was furnished and equipped with the bathing house, and sewage drains that were drained into more full public exhausts. Eventually, the fertile sludge was deposited in agricultural fields. Many homes were observed having private wells, and the Valley was following a sophisticated water management system with several reservoirs. The precious architecture of the Valley’s people is patent by their magnificent warehouses, brick platforms, granaries, and massive protective walls. Pakistan is one of the most well-known structures of Harappan Civilization. The great bath of Mohenjo-Daro is situated in Sindh, a province of Pakistan. This bath is reviewed as the earliest public water tank of history. The depth of this bath is about 2.43 meters, and the dimensions are 11.88 meters x 7.01 meters. The entry of the structure is served by two wide staircases. Many experts believe that the structure was used to purify the impurities of the bathers before ceremonies.


These people introduced techniques in the metallurgical Industry and produced bronze, copper, lead, and tin. One of the gorgeous artifacts from the Indus Valley Civilization is a girl statuette in an elevated position made of bronze, famous as the dancing girl of Mohenjo-Daro. This statuette is described as “the most captivating piece of art from an Indus site.” The sculpture is embellished with many ornaments, and the left arm of this figure is completely covered with bangles. This convention of wearing so many bangles is still practiced in several parts of India.IVC introduced new techniques in handicraft comprising seal carving. One of the most popular seals is the Pashupati seal that depicts many animals surrounding a man, and many experts say that this is the depiction of a Hindu god Shiva. Shiva avatar is called Pashupati or “the lord of animals,” but this always been a matter of debate.


Harrapan civilization has come up with the discovery of numerous seals and pots of different kinds Sakafat is taking the responsibility to preserve and promote this versatile tradition and is replicating some of the fantastic seals with the help of some very talented local artisans.

Types of seals:

Unicorn seals

Unicorn seals have been a point of discussion for long because most of the seals were found to have unicorns over them. That is a mythical animal that Romans and Greeks trace back to the Indian subcontinent these seals are composed of white fired, smooth stone and are stored and preserved in Karachi national museum. Sakafat Forever, with the help of its artisans, is successfully making beautiful replicas of Indus Valley seals, which also includes the master replicas of these Mohenjo-Daro unicorn seals.

Pashupati seals

These steatite seals were discovered in Mohenjo-Daro at the archeological site. The seal shows a three-headed figure which was once considered indecent. In the depicted image, a man who is horn dressed is surrounded by a few animals, which made the scholars believe that he was the master of animals and points towards some faith followed back then. Sakafat forever is looking forward to getting this seal replicated as well.

Multi animal seals

Some stamps were observed depicting animals on them, along with some scripted words. Specific rituals made us believe that this sealing, which is terracotta, may have been used as a token of the narrative. It may be a story of a famous myth. There must be a chance that these seals, which are terracotta, have an untold three rare animals’ account from Mohenjo-Daro.

Tree of life

A tree was also observed on some seals. It is a fig or pipal tree which is taken as a gesture of spirituality in Hinduism and Buddhism. A great bath was also discovered from the Indus valley, and their assumption turned into a belief. This mesmerizing seal is also being replicated by Sakafat and is perfect for house décor to add a gesture of peace. Different types of terracotta pots are also replicated and made under SF supervision. These pots are inspired by the Harrapan excavation findings and are so attractive due to their versatile patterns and purity.


Along with many other heritage promoting projects, Sakafat is also working for the preservation and promotion of numerous ancient fortunes. Indus valley has always been at the priority place for Sakafat, Products discovered from the Indus valley including several Terracotta seals, Terracotta Goblets, Pot Sherds, and a lot more are replicated by many talented artisans under the shelter of Sakafat Forever. Sakafat also aims to reintroduce the Harrapa and Mohenjo-Daro valleys to the world with all the cultural richness, so it keeps on planning tours to different regions of the country. On your way to Harrapa with Sakafat Forever, you’ll not only be impressed by the ancient site but also the enchantment on the way to it. You might stop by different gardens and enjoy the delicious taste of freshly picked oranges and guavas. The strong doodh Patti from different ‘’Dhabbas’’ on the way will make you feel energetic again. Many large nurseries on the way to refresh your mood, these nurseries also export plants all over the country. Also, a Power Plant will be seen right before you reach your destination. After witnessing the museum, the best thing you can have is a visit to the very famous ‘Noor Shah Walli Ullah’ Shrine and can have tantalizing Gol Gappas along listening some fantastic folk music from the talented local musicians.

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